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Verbs and Adjectives Word Cards

To the Teacher

Set 1 & 2 [Verbs]

A. number *1 of verb in Set 1 and 2 Lists
B. kanji *2 for verb
C. meaning *3 of verb
D. verb group *4
E. verb conjugation:
-NAI-form *5
-Dictionary (plain) form
-Potential form *6
-Volition form *7
F. TE-form *8
G. example sentences *9 using verb
H. Radical (key element of the character)
I. Number of strokes
J. Stroke order and practice (Only draw in on copies)
K. Space for practice (Only write on copies)

eg.たべます [Set 1]


  1. Set 1 comprises verbs in the MASU form and Set 2 comprises verbs in the dictionary (plain form). To distinguish the two, Set 1 verbs have M in front of the number.
  2. Verbs are given in kanji if that kanji is included in the General Use Characters (Jooyoo Kanji), except when they rarely appear in kanji and are usually written in hiragana.
  3. Meanings given are based on the commonly used Japanese textbooks.
  4. Verbs are divided into 3 grouliRU-verbs, U-verbs and IR (irregular) verbs. Ru-verbs are equivalent to WEAK verbs or ICHIDAN DOOSHI and U-verbs are STRONG verbs or GODAN DOOSHI. FUKISOKU DOOSHI is the Japanese expression for irregular verbs.
  5. In addition to expressions formed by adding to the NAI-form such as たべないでください (negative request) and  たべなければなりません (obligation), the NAI-form is used by itself as an informal negative form.
  6. The potential form refers to the form which means “CAN DO” eg. さしみがたべられますか Can you eat sashimi? Note that for RU-verbs the potential form is the same as the passive form. If the potential form of a particular verb is rarely used, it is not given.
  7. The volitional form is used in such expressions as “I will ~ , “ “I think I will~ “, as well as in informal requests or suggestions eg. Let’s eat. Note that this form has other usages apart from these examples. If the volitional form of a verb is rarely used, it is not given.
  8. The TE-form of いります/いる (to need, be necessary) is not given as it is not used.
  9. Example sentences in Set 1 are junior level, such as ~ませんか (invitation),  ~ましょう (suggestion) , ~てもいいですか(asking permission) , て(ください) (request) and ないで(ください) (negative request).
    In Set 2 they are a little more complex, and include patterns such as ~することができる (can do~), ~するつもりです (intend to do ),~したことがある(have done), ~したほうがいい (had better do) and relative clauses.

Ideas for Using Flash Cards

A: For recognition of hiragana/meaning

  1. Teachers can show particular cards to students and students practice reading the hiragana words or check their knowledge of the meanings.
  2. Students in groups can use the cards to play snap. The cards are spread out on the floor, and the teacher calls out a word or a meaning. If a student recognizes the word, he/she puts their hand on the card that has been called, and if they read it correctly, they take the card. The student who collects the most cards is the winner.

B: For writing exercises

  1. The cards can be used as writing models for students to copy.
  2. The cards can be used in combination with the KANJI 290 FLASH CARDS to teach the kanji for various verbs and adjectives. The relevant numbers of the kanji flash cards are given in the Set 1, 2 and 3 Lists.

C: For transforming exercises

  1. Teachers can show cards to students and ask them to transform the words into a particular form. For example, they might show verb cards in the MASU-form (eg. たべます ) and ask students to transform them into the dictionary (plain) form (eg. たべる ), they might show the dictionary (plain) form (eg. たべる ) and ask them to change the TE-form (eg. たべて). Similarly, students could transform adjectival forms.
  2. TE-form cards of strong verbs can be photocopied in different colours based on the different formations.
  3. Snap can be applied to transforming exercises as well. Students compete for a card by giving a particular form (eg. TE-form, NAI-form) which the teacher requests.

D: For sentence-making exercise

Each student is given a card and makes up a sentence using the word on the cards. Alternatively, a number of cards can be given to a group of students and they make up a sentence or a story using the words.

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